Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves. This phenomenon limits the distance between nuclei and atoms in a bond.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. It is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay them interest (the coupon) and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed the maturity date. Interest is usually payable at fixed intervals (semiannual, annual, sometimes monthly). Very often the bond is negotiable, i.e. the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. This means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond, it is highly liquid on the second market.
Thus a bond is a form of loan or IOU: the holder of the bond is the lender (creditor), the issuer of the bond is the borrower (debtor), and the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit (CDs) or short term commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds: the main difference is in the length of the term of the instrument.
Uncertainty for foreign investors remained high in May as the outflows from domestic bonds reached over $99 million against an inflow of just $15m in the treasury bills (T-bills) ... It shows that no foreign investor was ready to take the risk of investing in long-term bonds.
He said that by choosing SovereignGoldBond, gold ETF and gold mutual funds ahead of digital gold an investor will be able to save an additional 5 per cent difference on buying and selling of gold ... On why Sovereign Gold Bonds are best among all possible gold investment options, ...
The country aims to increase the diversity of investors, while improving the liquidity and stability of its bond market, according to a statement jointly issued by the central bank and top securities and foreign exchange regulators.
A credit default swap, often referred to as a CDS, is a form of insurance against the possibility of default on a bond or a loan ...The rise in the index this year suggests investors in such bonds (dubbed 'junk' because of the sizeable risk of default) should prepare for stressful times ahead.
Will this year's market turn out to be another shy bear, one that has barely shown its face only to disappear for months? Or will it return as a ferocious beast that will punish investors who do not protect themselves from harm? ... As an investor, I hope the market rises immediately ... What should investors make of this history?.
Signs that growth may be slowing have helped bolster Treasury prices, suggesting investors are increasingly looking to bonds for safety rather than as assets that could be at risk during times of high inflation, said Anders Persson, chief investment officer of global fixed income at Nuveen.
here are a number of investment tools and rules of thumb that investors can use to steer them through choppy stock markets ... For example, if you are a cautious investor, but have a higher proportion of shares than model portfolios for cautious investors, you may want to dial down your holdings of equities and buy more bonds.
Inflation in the United States has probably peaked ... economy as a whole is overheated ... bonds and bonds that are indexed to protect investors against inflation ... A few days ago, billionaire investor Bill Ackman attracted a lot of attention with a tweet declaring that markets are crashing because investors don’t believe the Fed will do its job ... ....
There are a number of investment tools and rules of thumb that investors can use to steer them through choppy stock markets ... For example, if you are a cautious investor, but have a higher proportion of shares than model portfolios for cautious investors, you may want to dial down your holdings of equities and buy more bonds.
Jeremy Grantham, Michael Burry of "The Big Short" fame, and other investors and commentators have warned stocks could tumble a lot further before the current downturn is over ...Grantham has also sounded the alarm on the surging prices of housing, bonds, energy, metals, and food.
According to the country’s settlement depository, the payments were made on Friday ... The coupons on Eurobonds maturing in 2026 and 2036 were due to be paid on May 27. The country forwarded the two payments to the depository last week in an effort to evade a technical default, which would ensue if the bond payments did not reach investors on time ... .
Russia has $100 million of bond payments due Friday, in the biggest test yet of its ability to get money to investors ... However, Moscow's efforts to keep paying its debts became a lot more complicated this week when the US Treasury ended the sanctions exemption that allowed American investors to receive money from Russian bonds.
Meanwhile, investors sold a net $9.94 billion of bond funds in the week, their eight consecutive weekly outflow. Global investors exited short- and medium-term bond funds worth $5.14 billion, while high yield funds witnessed outflows of $2.18 billion.
New York/London — Russia is on the cusp of a unique kind of debt crisis which investors say would be a first time a major emerging market economy is pushed into a bond default by geopolitics, rather than empty coffers ...Emerging market debt crises are nothing new — Russia itself reneged on its rouble bonds in 1998.